Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers.
Because of the variety of potential applications, governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars. The European Union has invested over 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars.
Nanoinnovation is the implementation of nanoscale discoveries and inventions including new technologies and applications that involve nanoscale structures and processes. Cutting edge innovations in nanotechnology include 2D materials that are one atom thick, such as graphene (carbon), silicene (silicon) and staphene (tin). Many products we're familiar with are nano-enabled, such as smartphones, large screen television sets, solar cells, and batteries...to name a few examples. Nanocircuits and nanomaterials are creating a new generation of wearable computers and a wide variety of sensors. Many nanoinnovations borrow ideas from Nature (biomimicry) such as a new type of dry adhesive called Geckskin(tm) which recreates the nanostructures of a gecko lizard's footpads. In the field of nanomedicine, virtually all innovations involving viruses are nanoinnovations, since most viruses are nanoscale in size.